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United States Troops in Spanish East Florida, 1812-1813

Author's Note: The publication of this series of papers, comprising the correspondence of Lieut. Col. Thomas A. Smith, commander of the detachment of United States regulars that invaded Spanish East Florida in March, 1812, began in the July, 1930, issue of the QUARTERLY. This should be consulted for an explanation as to why the American troops invaded the Spanish province, and also for the details concerning the discovery of these important Florida records. - T. FREDERICK DAVIS.]

Gov. Kindelan to Lt. Col. Smith (original)

St. Augustine, East Florida Translation 11th of June, 1812

I have just arrived at this place and have taken command as Governor Proprietary, Politic and Military, appointed by the Most Serene Regency of the Kingdom, and find it very strange to see encamped in this vicinity regular troops of the United States, altho my Nation is in friendship and good understanding with said States conformable to the Treaties of Amity and Commerce existing between both Nations, when there has preceded no declaration of war. I have determined to give you this notice, when you find it con venient you will be pleased to come to this place, or else to commission one of your confidential officers, for the purpose of having a conference with me, assuring you on my word of honor as a Gentleman, that he will be seen and treated with the greatest respect. May God preserve you many years.

[signed] Sebn. Kindelan

To the Commander of the American troops encamped in the vicinity of this place.

P.S. This will be delivered by the Sergeant Major of this place, Don Francisco Rivera.

Lt. Col. Smith to Gov. Kindelan (copy).

U. S. Encampment 12th June, 1812.

To his Excellency Sebn. Kindelan, Governor,

Proprietary, Politic & Military etc., etc. Sir :

I had the honor to receive your Excellency's communication of yesterday by the Sergeant-Major Dn. Francisco Rivera & in conformity with your request have directed Capt. Joseph Woodruff, of the 3d United States regiment of Infantry, & Lt. George Haig, of the United States Dragoons, to wait upon your Excellency, assuring your Excellency that they possess my full confidence & that they are entitled to entire faith and credit. I avail myself of this occasion to inform your Excellency that the negotiating powers with your Excellency are now vested by the United States govern ment in his Excellency David B. Mitchell, Governor & Commander-in-chief of the State of Georgia & that as United States Commissioner they are plenary; & further that his Excellency is now in St. Mary's in the State of Georgia, where I will with great pleasure send by express any communication your Excellency may wish to make. I take the liberty to add that the late Commandant of St. Augustine would have heard again from his Excellency had not his troops fired upon my command before the expiration of the time allotted for the return of Col. Cuthbert. I reciprocate your good wishes,

And am with the highest Consideration, Most respectfully your Excellency's Obt. Servt.

Gov. Kindelan to Lt. Col. Smith (original)

St. Augustine, East Florida Translation 12th June, 1812 In consequence of your not being authorized to confer with me respecting the disagreeable occurrences which the Troops under your command have occasioned in this Province, as you state in your letter of this day, I have nothing to say to the two officers you have sent to this place: and to the effect I shall apply to His Excellency David B. Mitchell, Governor of the State of Georgia & Commissioner of the United States, but at the same time I request you to retire with the Troops under your command to the other side of the River St. John's without giving any active or passive protection to the Revolters of this said Province, which under the protection of the U. S. Arms are daring to commit vexations of all descriptions upon her Loyal Inhabitants.

May God preserve you many years. [signed] Sebn. Kindelan T. A. Smith, Lt. Col. U. S. Regt. Riflemen.

Lt. Col. Smith to Gov. Kindelan (copy)

United States Encampment 13th June, 1812

To his Excellency Sebn. Kindelan, Governor Proprietary, Politic & Military, etc., etc.

Sir :

In reply to your Excellency's communication of yesterday, I have to observe that my instructions command me to maintain my present position. To prevent the effusion of blood pending the negotiation with his Excellency, Governor Mitchell, I must request that no parties may be sent from the Town [of St. Augustine], or I shall feel myself obliged to repel any force which may appear without the reach of your cannon.

I am with the highest Consideration, Most respectfully your Excellency's Obt. Servant.,

Gov. Kindelan to Lt. Col. Smith (original)

St. Augustine in East Florida Translation 13th June, 1812.

I have received the paper that by your order and with this date just delivered to me by an officer of the Troops under your command, and in answer I have to say, that I do not admit, and never will, that any laws shall be imposed on me that my Troops in whatever place or situation, if insulted, will sustain their character; consequently in any case I shall act with the energy that characterizes the Glorious Spanish Nation, well convinced that the results will be to the charge of the first aggressors ; declaring to you that in future you abstain from sending any new communication to this Place for it will be discharged without hearing. The existing differences would not take that aspect which corresponds to two Nations happily in peace and the best harmony, etc. Sebn. Kindelan [Rubric] Lt. Col. T. A. Smith Regt. U. S. Riflemen

Lt. Col. Smith to Gov. Mitchell (copy)

Camp before St. Augustine 17th June, 1812. Sir :

Herewith I have the honor to transmit you Governor Kindelan's reply to my communication of the 13th Inst., a copy of which was forwarded by Colo.

Isaacs. From its tenor we may soon expect active operations. It was not intended that Capt. Massias, who was the bearer of my letter, should have entered the Town. While there, however, he heard a conversation relative to the situation of the St. John's, what force we had in it & what time it would take to go round from St. Augustine. These inquiries were made by the Naval Officer who brought the Governor from the Havanna. Several vessels were reported off the bar on the 15th. Boats have been seen plying between them & the Town, but whether with men or provisions we cannot say.

From my communication of the 13th Inst., to Governor Kindelan, your Excellency will perceive that I stand pledged to attack any party which may be sent from the Town. Should they cross a Detachment at Solana's ferry I would be under the necessity of dividing my force, small as it is, to prevent them from at tacking me in the rear. I can expect no assistance from the Patriots, for since the affair with the negroes, trifling as it was, I cannot prevail upon them to send out any parties. From their long state of inactivity dissensions have arisen in their Camp which must tend greatly to injure the Cause. Continued applications for leave of absence has reduced their numbers considerably. Without the presence of the Chiefs of the Revolution nothing can be expected from them. Indeed their present disposition almost indicates the abandonment of the enterprise. Though I cannot calculate upon any effective support from the Patriots in the event of an assault, yet their force (if at all respectable) might give a good countenance to the affair & by occupying the country curtail the supplies of the Spaniards.

I have the honor to be sir, With high respect, Your Obt. Servt.

Lt. Col. Smith to Gov. Mitchell (copy)

Camp before St. Augustine 20th June, 1812 Sir :

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your Excellency's communication by Colo. Isaacs. While the approval of my correspondence gives me pleasure, I regret that the instructions contained in a subsequent part prevented me from sending out a Detach ment to intercept a party of about one hundred reported to have crossed at Solana's Ferry and taken the road to Picolata, either for the capture of that place or again on an expedition after cattle. Your orders on that head were so preemptory that I did not feel myself at liberty to use any discretion. However, it may be fortunate, as by a Deserter today we learn that from the vessels off the bar a hundred Black Troops have actually been landed, which are only a part of the force brought from the Havanna, & that on the twenty-third or fourth we shall have an attack.

From these circumstances it may be prudent to keep my small Detachment as compact as possible, though from my reply to Governor Kindelan of the 13th Inst., I should have considered myself in honor bound to pursue this party had it not been for that clause in your letter which forbid my provoking an attack. It was further reported by the Deserter that two schooners mounting each twelve Six-pounders & a Sixteen were preparing for an attack upon our gunboats in the St. John's. What reliance is to be placed in the statement of this man is uncertain. It may have the good effect however, of rousing the Patriots from their lethargy. There is no doubt but correct information has been received in St. Augustine of all our expected reinforce ments & if they intend an attack it will be hastened by the knowledge of our near support.

The arrival of Maj. Long,. with whom I have engaged for the supply of any number of Troops which may be ordered into this Province, has relieved me of a very great weight. From his zeal & ability to furnish I apprehend no further difficulty on the subject of provisions,

I have the honor to be, Sir, With high respect, Your Obt. Servt.

Lt. Col. Smith to Capt. John Tate (copy)

Camp before St. Augustine 25th June, 1812. Sir :

Your favor by Rendon has this moment reached me. The party that left St. Augustine have not yet returned & I think never will without getting a severe drubbing, as 160 men are in pursuit of them. Three Gun Boats & one of our Revenue Cutters arrived at the Cowford yesterday at 12 o'clock with 175 men. (13)

Colo. Newnan is on his march with two troops of Dragoons & 250 Infantry; two Companies are on their march from Augusta, & by private letters we learn that 6 large Barges with from 40 to 50 men each are ordered [by] the inland passage from N. Carolina. From present appearances I expect to be authorized to reduce the Town by force in a short time. Some 24 mortars, etc, etc, are either in the Gun Boats or at St. Mary's for me. I will send, a physician to administer to the sick at Picolata as soon as he returns, he being with the party pursuing the Dons.

The officers join me in tendering our best wishes to Mrs. Tate & yourself.

I am sir respectfully Your Obt. Servt

Gov. Mitchell to Lt. Col Smith (original)

St. Mary's, 1st July, 1812. Sir :

Since writing you on the 24th of last month, I have received by express from General Pinckney (14) the important information that war was declared against Great Britain on the 18th [June]. I am in great hopes that this change in our political situation will produce something decisive in regard to East Florida. I confess my patience is nearly exhausted by the dilatory manner in which we have been proceeding for some time past. I hope the Savannah Volunteers have reached you in safety. They are generally fine-spirited young men.

I have reason to expect a Detachment of not less than 180 men from the Oconee in a very few days. The moment they arrive they will be forwarded to you immediately. The recruits from Savannah which I mentioned to you I would order to Amelia, are there now, & with the Marines from the Gun Boats make Capt. Ridgeway's (15) command at least ninety men.

Col. Isaacs has been so much indisposed since his arrival that he has been and still is unable to return to you. You will therefore receive this by a Mr. Gibson, belonging to the Patriots.

I am Sir With much regard & esteem, Your very Obt. Servt., [signed] D. B. Mitchell.

Lt. Col. Smith to Gov. Mitchell (copy)

Camp before St. Augustine, 6th July, 1812. Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your Excellency's communication of the 1st Inst. As the Nation has taken an honourable stand & appealed to Arms for the vindication of its rights, I hope the Government will not long remain inactive as it respects East Florida. To meet with promptness the views of the Administration (if they are such as I think they will be) & strike a decisive blow it would be necessary, independent of the other reinforcements, that I should have Capt. Williams and the Marines under his command. You are acquainted with the difference between Regulars and Militia.

A few Gun Boats in the mouth of the Harbor [of St. Augustine] with the reinforcements expected will ensure the fall of the Town. The Boats can enter the Harbor & get into the North River without sustaining any damage from the Fort. The resistance from their armed vessels is not to be apprehended.

I have ordered Capt. Massias (16) to the command of Amelia ; his health required a removal, but I could not spare him without another supplying his place.

I have the honor to be, Sir, With high respect, Your Obt. Servt..,

Lt. Col. Smith to Gov. Mitchell (copy)

Camp before St. Augustine, 10th July, 1812. Sir :

The Patriots have determined to encourage the Volunteers in their service to enter that of the United

States. If your Excellency will authorize me to accept of their services, they may be made useful, as none but the most active, hardy, and those disposed to submit to discipline will offer. They are badly armed & we have no cartridge boxes to spare.

I have been informed that one hundred & thirty stand of Arms & Accoutrements have been taken by Capt. Ridgeway on Amelia Island. Should the information be correct & your Excellency determines to ac cept the Volunteers it will be well to have them forwarded when Capt. Ridgeway comes on. I suggested in my communication of the 6th Inst., the propriety of ordering Capt. Williams' detachment to join me if you think they can be spared from Amelia & the Government should have authorized the reduction of the place. (17) I have determined to attempt to effect it by storm the first favourable night without waiting for a larger force. My plan is to attack the lines & citidel at the same time, the former in two & the latter in three places. I am preparing ladders, etc, etc.

I have the honor to be sir With high respect Your Obt. Servt.

Lt. Col. Smith to U. S. Adjutant & Inspector (copy)

Sir : Point Petre, 30th July, 1812.

Your favors of 19 & 26 June & 11 July have been received. Two of the Officers (Lieut. Patterson & Laval) reported absent with leave are somewhere in North & South Carolina, but at what particular places I am unable to ascertain, I have ordered the men belonging to the Companies composing this Detachment at Fort Hawkins to join me, those in South Carolina being ordered to their present stations by the Officer commanding the district. I have considered that an order from me would be irregular & perhaps not respected.

An English half-pay Lieut. has been sent by the Civil Authority to the officer in command in this neighborhood. I have until I receive some instructions in the case allowed him the privilege of remaining at his plantation & attending to his business as heretofore, taking his word of honor not to leave the State until authorized to do so.

The Indians have commenced hostilities in my rear. On Saturday, 26, they killed a white man & five negroes & made thirty-two prisoners on the north side of the St. John's. On the following morning they killed two men in four miles of my camp. The Governor of Georgia having ordered upwards of two hundred Volunteers to join me & authorized me to chastise the Indians, I am making arrangements for that purpose & expect by the end of August to have destroyed all their towns in East Florida.

I have the honor to be, sir, With high respect, Your obt Servt.

Lt. Col. Smith to Maj. Gen. Pinckney (copy)

Point Petre, 30 July, 1812. Sir :

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the 24th ult. My orders from his Excellency, Govr. Mitchell, are positive to maintain my present position unless compelled to retire by a superior force. The Indians have commenced hostilities in my rear.

They have within the last week killed 8 or 9 persons & carried off 70 or 80 slaves. My orders warrant my attacking them in their Towns or elsewhere, for which events I am preparing. The moment that Arms are received I will dispatch Maj. Newnan (18) with 250 Volunteers with orders to destroy all their settlements within 100 miles of the St. John's. The safety of our frontier I conceive requires this course. They have, I am informed, several hundred fugative slaves from the Carolinas & Georgia at present in their Towns & unless they are checked soon they will be so strengthened by desertions from Georgia & Florida that it will be found troublesome to reduce them.

I have the honor to be sir, With high respect, Your Obt. servt.,

Lt. Col. Smith to Lieut. Stallings (19) (copy).

Camp before St. Augustine, 9th August, 1812. Sir :

As the Indians continue to commit depredations in your neighborhood you will use every possible exertion to complete your block house. (20) Should the inhabitants wish to build cabins near you they must be placed as per the enclosed rough sketch, with port holes, & at the distance of from 50 to 80 yards. The old shed must be removed within 40 yards, the ends open that you can fire through it at an enemy. When you have completed the work you will have the side of the swamp next to you well examined & the creek opened. The inhabitants must assist in performing this duty. Should the Indians throw themselves in the swamp to cut off the communications by water I wish to know every place that a party can approach to drive them out. From the improper conduct of the Ox drivers I expect they will be unable to perform many more trips. They left here at 10 o'clock & Hubbard informed me they were within five miles of the Block House when he met them.

I am respectfully sir, Your obt. servt.,

Lt. Col. Smith to Lieut. Stallings (copy)

Camp before St. Augustine, 10th August, 1812. Sir :

The Patriots having abandoned this camp, I wish you to get their Mule team to be employed in the Contractor's service unless I have other use for it. Obtain it mildly if possible, but if necessary you must use force. Be cautious that the Mules are not stolen. They must be furnished with as much corn as they can eat.

The few Patriots here must be furnished with provisions by the Contractor on account of beef furnished him until they leave this place. Try & employ Smith to take charge of the team. On reflection it will be well to remove the shed within thirty paces of the block house that the men in the cabins can fire on a party attempting to approach it in the rear. Our provisions can be kept in it, which will afford sufficient room for your Detachment to sleep in the lower story of the block house. See that no fire is taken in lest a spark might get to the powder. Have one box of the rifles opened & kept in good order & loaded, as well as all the spare muskets you have. You will keep a bright lookout as the Dons have an inclination to destroy that establishment. You are positively com manded to defend the place to the last extremity.

I am respectfully sir, Your obt. servt.,

Lt. Col. Smith to Capt. Fort (21) (copy)

Camp before St. Augustine; 11th August; 1812. Sir :

I have this moment received information of your arrival with 125 men in the neighborhool of Mr. Kingsley's, (22) I wish you on the receipt of this to proceed to Picolata, where I wish all the Volunteers from Georgia to rendezvous unless circumstances should make it necessary for them to join me. On your arrival at that place I wish you to send a party to arrest Wanton, who lives within a mile or two, & have him closely confined. I wish you then to dispatch a party of thirty or forty active men with proper guides to Bona Vista with the view of taking the boat used for conveying the hostile Indians and negroes across the St. John's.

The Dons are preparing to attack me & they calculate on being aided by 2 or 300 Indians & negroes from the west of the St. John's. If you find that any parties have crossed the river I wish you to take post at the block house on Davis's creek and send a strong escort say 20 or 30 men -with the provision wagons & I will relieve them by regulars. You will apprise me of any discoveries your party of observation may make up the river that I may govern myself accordingly. Mr. Tait will furnish you a messenger. I begin. to think that we shall have the gratification of attacking the Dons in their stronghold.

If you should not have brought powder sufficient with you a supply can be had by application to Mr. Stallings, who commands at the block house.

I am respectfully Your obt. servt.,

Lt. Col. Smith to Gov. Mitchell (copy)

Camp before St. Augustine, 21st August, 1812. Dear Sir:

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 5th August by Mr. Gray. The information which be has detailed may prove useful, but I flatter myself the Volunteers will render abortive the schemes of the Spaniards. The Indians will scarcely venture between the two bodies more especially as their retreat can be effectually cut off by the party not attacked. I apprehend but little injury from them in my present position if my communication with the block house at Julianton (Davis's) creek can be kept open. Capt. Fort with the first division of Volunteers arrived at Mr. Kingsley`s some days ago. I have ordered him to Picolata whence he will commence his operations against the Indians. Colo. Newnan with his Detachment is reported to have arrived in the St. John's.

We had the misfortune on the 12th Inst. to lose a man in the most shocking manner. Lieut. Stallings commanding at the block house had dispatched him as an express to me. He had not proceeded more than three miles before he was taken by a party of negroes & Indians (as we believe from the best information) & most cruelly murdered. From the appearance of the body, which was left lying in the road, he had been flogged, his nose, one ear, & ______________ cut off. (23) He had three shot wounds in his body & his scalp was taken. This man was a regular soldier & the bearer of a letter from Capt. Fort, which no doubt fell into the hands of this party as the body was found naked. The atrocity of the act has roused the feelings of the soldiers to such a degree that I cannot be answerable for their conduct should any of the enemy fall into their possession; The blacks assisted by the Indians have become very daring & from the want of a proper knowledge of the country the parties which I have sent out have always been unsuccessful. We cannot obtain sufficient guides or those which we have will not do their duty. It appears that this party, which we think did not exceed ten in number were laying in wait for our wagons. It was fortunate that the difficulty of getting up the Oxen prevented them setting out at the time appointed, otherwise they certainly would have fallen an easy prey, as the escort was but small. This daring boldness of the enemy has obliged me to send a strong guard with the wagons, as it is all important to have a regular supply of provisions.

The Patriots have evacuated their encampment immediately in my rear & retired to the St. Johns. Their only fears now seem to be about the Indians. In providing means for their present security they appear to have lost sight of the first grand object, the conquest of the Province, & from the rapid decrease of their numbers, having dwindled away to nothing, it is doubtful whether the "Patriotic Army" will ever revive again.

My Detachment has been very sickly, nearly one third on the report at a time, to remedy which I have erected temporary palmetto huts which will protect them against sun & rains.

I wish Colo. Newnan the moment transport can be procured to commence his march against the Indian Towns. I think 2 or 250 men will be sufficient to lay them in ashes. It will be well however to take steps to prevent the Creeks within our limits taking any part in the war. Mr. Gray informed me he saw six barges with 30 or 40 men mounting each a Nine-pounder on their way to St. Marys ; two or three of them would be very serviceable in the. St. John's.

I have the honor to be sir, With high respect, Your obt. servt.

Lt. Col. Smith to Thomas Bourke (24) (Copy)

Camp before St. Augustine, Dear Sir: 21st August, 1812.

After the long delay which was experienced on the passage between Savannah & St. Mary's, I understand the Arms etc have arrived. Though considerable inconvenience was felt, yet I hope the tardiness of the Captain's movements will not be productive of any serious consequences.

We are still hanging on in the old-style before St. Augustine, the Indians in our rear committing depredations almost every day, & if they have an inclina tion can make us retire whenever they please, as our Contractor never furnishes provisions for more than four or five days in advance. In truth I am truly tired of the Damned Province and would not remain (if it rested with me) one month longer in my present situation for a fee simple to the whole of it. The Patriots have deserted their camp near me & the few that remain of that body are somewhere on the St. Johns. (25)

I have not the smallest expectation that they will ever embody again. I will endeavor to send a party against the Indian Towns, but I am not certain that I shall be able to effect it, as the Volunteers are the only Troops that can be spared for that service & the term for which they engaged to serve is nearly half out. I have ordered Lt. James Barton to Point Petre to receive and receipt for any public stores that may be ordered for the use of the Detachment under my command.

The Officers with me of your acquaintance tender you their best wishes.

Believe me with sincerity, Your friend & Obt. servt.,

P.S. Since writing the within I have seen Colo. Newnan, who commands the Volunteers. He informed me that by some mistake the camp kettles had not been put on board of Chevalier. His. men are stout, active fellows & will fight well, but they have no shoes, canteens, or camp equippage of any kind. I have ordered them to Picolata to prepare for their march against the Indians, but I am fearful their term of service will have expired before they can procure the necessary equipments. Of the small Detachment of regular Troops under my command between fifty & sixty are sick. Only two have yet died.

Lt. Col. Smith to Col. Newnan (copy)

Camp before St. Augustine, 26th August, 1812. Dear Sir:

A letter without signature which from the substance I take to be yours is before me. The only thing that can be done with those unprincipled men who attempted to desert at a crisis like the present is to have them drummed out of the Army with a Rope around their neck. This must be done by sentence of C. M. The Officer must be tried by a Genl. Court Martial & I am not authorized to order one. If you cannot effect the objects that brought you in the Province in consequence of desertion it will have to be given over entire ly. What a disgraceful story it will be, to go abroad.

My Detachment is already so weak, if I had taken the advice of many I would have fallen back ; but I know a few men determined to do their duty can effect a great deal. I have not the smallest doubt but two parties of seventy-five each with guides well acquainted with the country could surprise & destroy two or three of their Towns & effect a junction in opposition to all that can be done by the Towns in this Province. They can then march to the nearest part of the St. John's where their boats can be in readiness for them. You will however in everything that relates to the expedition exercise your own judgment.

I send you the law authorizing the acceptance of Volunteers which I wish you by no means to neglect sending back.

Cone with forty men will accompany you to the nation. (26)

I am respectfully sir Your obt. servt.

Lt. Col. Smith to Col. Newnan (copy)

Camp before St. Augustine, Dear Sir: 30th August, 1812.

There being at this time between eighty and ninety of my Detachment on the sick report, I expect in a short time to be compelled to retire to some healthy position on the St. John's until I am sufficiently reinforced to maintain such position near St. Augustine as may be deemed judicious, & if necessary, to act offensively against the Town. I regret very much that it is not in my power to afford you any reinforcement, as I can scarcely furnish the necessary camp guards & an escort to the provision wagons. Capt Cone with near forty select men [Patriots] will join you if you will notify him of the time you expect to commence your movement. My health continues bad. If I am able to march I will pay you a visit in a few days. The Contractor has been furnished with money to procure such transport as the country will afford for your baggage.

I will thank you to tender my best wishes to the officers of your command & accept for yourself assurance of my high respect.

I am sir, Your obt. servt.

Col. Newnan to Lt. Col. Smith (original)

Dear Sir: New Switzerland (27) 31st August, 1812

Yours of the 26th & 30th I have just received, & am sorry to find that you have so many sick men in your detachment. Within a few days past several of the men under my command have been taken sick and the number now amounts to thirty-seven. I have been very unwell myself for several days past, with the fever, but at present I feel like getting better. The Contractor and his miserable agents have so managed their business that there is no dependence to be put in them for a regular supply of rations, even for three days, and had it not been for our own endeavors, we would have been left without anything to eat - in fact, ever since. we left the block house the Contractor has been useless to us. I would have been at Picolata before this, but understood that all the cattle was driven from the neighborhood by Captain Cone's men and have only stopped at this place on account of its furnishing beef. I returned this day from Kingsley's and Hollingsworth's, where I had been to make inquiries respecting horses, guides, and cattle. Kingsley has promised to procure me a few horses ; guides I expect I will have to press, & Tait (who is now at Kingsley's) has promisel to drive his cattle back to Picolata. What a hopeful set of villains we are benefitting. If I thought the scoundrels I command would not desert, & would extend their term of service I would prefer joining your detachment, but almost all of them will go home the moment their time expires, which will be in about four weeks. I am apprehensive that the Spaniards will attack you in a few days, unless you remove, and I think from the sickly state of your detachment it is highly advisable. I would be glad to have a personal interview with you, when perhaps measures may be adopted to rouse the spirit of this detachment and a number may be induced to join you for three or four months. My present conviction however, is that any officer who trusts his honor and reputation to the three months militia alone, will be in danger of losing both. (28) Under all these discouraging circumstances I am still determined to march to the nation, unless otherwise ordered, and am of the opinion that with one hundred brave men the whole of the Indians may be driven. One half of Cone's men are sick, and I do not expect more than ten of them to go with me. With pack horses it appears I am not to be supplied, & I hear of no cavalry coming to join me from St. Mary's, but I shall proceed in a very few days.

I am, dear sir, Very respectfully, Yrs. most obt. [signed] Daniel Newnan

Detachment Orders

The term for which the Republican Blues from Savannah tendered their services to the Governor having expired on the 16th Inst & they having made a voluntary offer of further services until a reinforcement should arrive, the commanding of ficer cannot in justice to his feelings forbear. tendering to the officers and men his thanks for the patience and fortitude with which they have submitted to the hardships and privations incident to the profession of Arms.

(This series will be continued in the following issue of the QUARTERLY.) Click here for Part Three .

13. Under the command of Col. Alfred Cuthbert.

14. Maj. Gen. Thomas Pinckney, commanding the Southeast Department.

15. Capt. Fielder Ridgeway, commanding at Amelia Island.

16. Capt. A. A. Massias.

17. St. Augustine.

18. Col. Daniel Newnan, Adjutant-General of Georgia.

19. Lieut. Elias Stallings.

20. The block house was situated near the old St. Augustine road where it crossed Davis's Creek in the vicinity of the present village of Bayard. Up to this time the main supply depot was about six miles up Six Mile Creek, but now the Davis Creek post became the supply depot for the troops before St. Augustine.

21. Capt. Tomlinson Fort of the Milledgville, Ga., Volunteers

22. Zephaniah Kingsley's plantation "Laurel Grove" situated on the west side of the St. Johns River, where Orange Park, Clay County, is now.

23. Unquestionably the work of the negroes.


24. United States Agent at Savannah.

25. Probably encamped on a commanding bluff on the north side of the St. Johns River at the Cowford, now the foot of Washington and Liberty Streets in Jacksonville.

26. The Indian nation.

27. On the east side of the St. Johns, now known as Switzerland.

28. This evidently refers to the paid Militia as Col. Smith just ten days previously had highly complimented the Volunteers as follows:

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