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United States Troops in Spanish East Florida, 1812-1813

[Author's Note. The publication of this series of papers comprising the correspondence of Col. Thomas A. Smith, commander of the detachment of United States regulars that in vaded Spanish East Florida in March, 1812, began in the July, 1930, issue of the QUARTERLY. This should be consulted for an explanation of the American invasion, and also for the details concerning the discovery of these important Florida records. -T. FREDERICK DAVIS.]

Col. Smith to F. Howard (copy).

Camp New Hope, St. John's, 22d October, 1812. Sir :

I have made so many verbal representations to yourself & Mr. Ruddle of the irregularity of supplies to the Troops under my command, that I can no longer forbear requiring of you to furnish agreeably to the contract all of the component parts of the ration when the return is made, & if it is not in your power to do so, I wish to be officially informed of the failure of the Contractor, that other measures may be resorted to, to obtain regular supplies. I cannot forbear expressing my fear that some nefarious practices have been used to distress and if possible compel me to abandon this Province. The manner in which our supplies have been forwarded, by small and leaky boats & intrusted to persons without character or the means of making good losses and distruction, is a strong evidence that there is either treachery or a want of arrangement in the Contractor's Department. I am therefore compelled in justice to the Troops intrusted to my care and my own honor to make this last appeal to you as Agent of the Contractor at this place. Be pleased to

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accept assurances of my high personal respect and confidence, I am, sir, your obt. servt., Col. Smith to Maj. Thomas Bourke, A.D.Q.M.G. (copy).

Camp New Hope, St. Johns, 25th October, 1812. Dear Sir:

Since my last letter the affairs of this Province have assumed an aspect altogether different from any which it has heretofore had. My retrograde movement has drawn none of those ill consequences after it which were so much to be expected. From the unhealthiness of the Troops everything was to be appre hended from an attack & it is but within these few days past that my sick list has decreased. Even now we parade little more than half our force. It is generally reported that the Province is about to be ceded to the United States ; of this I have no positive information. However, I received an order directing Capt. Woodruff with his Company to join the regiment to which he belongs stationed at Baton Rouge, M. T. 40 His route will be by Fort Hawkins.

Genl. Floyd arrived in our neighborhood a few days ago. He will set out on Monday for the Lotchway Towns with a force of two hundred & twenty men. Newnan with a part of his Volunteers are among the number. I have been compelled, notwithstanding the small force I have, to detach fifty men upon this service. I found unless that assistance was afforded the expedition would have fallen through. I would not have taken the responsibility of this measure on myself, but having received an order "not to act offen cively against St. Augustine" I conceived the Troops

40. M. T. is abbreviation for Mississippi Territory.

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in no immediate danger. The necessity also of chastising the insolence of the Indians & checking their depredations were strong inducements. Woodruff, Appling, Haig & Stallings will be on the expedition. 41

The Spaniards have lately received another reinforcement of ninety blacks from the Havana. The Dons had everything prepared on the 10th Ulto. for an attack on my Camp. The Gates were thrown open, the Troops paraded & preparations made for the sacrifice of a handful of half starved sickly men. But when his Donship reviewed his sable Warriors he declared himself not for the fight & then sent out ninety Negroes accompanied by Indians who attacked Williams.

The loss of Newnan in his different actions amounted to seven killed and fifteen wounded, two of whom have since died.

For your tender of service be pleased to accept my thanks & believe me with sincerity, Your friend,

Col. Smith to Gen. Flournoy (copy).

Point Petre, 7th Nov. 1812. Sir :

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communications of the 8th & 25th Ulto. I transmit herewith an extract of a letter received from his Excellency, Govr. Mitchell, which with former instruc tions I conceive would warrant my acting offensively against St. Augustine, but as it is evident from your communication of the 8th, that Orders have been issued from the War Department that have not reached me, I feel embarrassed & at a loss what course to

41. No further mention is made of this expedition; it was presumably postponed for reasons indicated in the following letter of this series.

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pursue. The expense of transport will be considerable, indeed waggons cannot be procured in this quarter. I have hired four of those employed in transporting the baggage of Colo. Chambers at five dollars per day until I hear from you. The funds at my command are by no means competent to the objects to be effected. I wish authority to draw for such sums as may be found absolutely necessary & to procure sufficient transport. I enclose a return of the Regt. under Colo. Chambers (they are well armed and equipped) four Companies of which have been sent to my Camp on the St. Johns ; the others are training here & will follow as soon as I hear from the Governor, unless other wise ordered. To occupy the position before St. Augustine will have no good effect unless I am permitted to attack the Town, which must be destroyed to produce any effect on the fortress. The Inhabitants with the Troops would crowd the place so much that it could not hold out long.

The two Companies of Riflemen with me are one without subalterns, the other has but one. I have repeatedly represented this thing to the War Department without its being remedied. Capt. Woodruff has received orders to join his Regt. on the Mississippi. This movement if carried into effect will deprive me of two active Officers & about fifty men, which will make the regular force under my command small indeed. Lt. Ryan, one of the Officers is a principal wit ness relyed on to support the charge against Capt. Ridgeway. I am therefore induced to request, if it can be consistently done, that the movement may be suspended.

My present encampment is thirty miles north of St. Augustine immediately on the bank of the St. Johns & about ten miles above the Cowford. The only mode by which dispatches can be sent with safety

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to or from St. Mary's is by water; they are equally safe without being sent under cover to the Intendant 42 and would reach me sooner,

The Contractor is not here. I expect to see him tomorrow & will get him to inform you what supplies of Provender can be procured & at what notice. It is absolutely necessary that there should be some Dragoons attached to my Command ; the expense will be considerable, but I hope that will not be an obstacle to their being employed. I have apprized the Governor of the contents of your letter of the 8th Ulto, & your orders to Colo. Chambers. If he does not direct me to the contrary, I will as soon as it can be done occupy my old Camp before St. Augustine until a favourable moment of attacking the Town offers, when I will either take the Place, destroy the Town, or be beaten out of the Province. The two Companies of Regular Troops you mention would certainly be very serviceable, as I have not the most implicit confidence in Militia. My little Detachment I know will do their duty. I am conscious of your having done everything in your power to secure them & I hope the day is not far distant when they will have an opportunity to convince you they are grateful for your care.

I have the honor to be sir with high respect Your obt. servt.

Gov. Mitchell to Col. Smith (original).

Milledgeville, 7th Novr. 1812. Dear Sir:

I received your favour of the 20th October by the last Darien mail. I am much gratified at the return of Col. Newnan's Detachment with so little loss-he

42. The position of Intendant was the same as Mayor.

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is certainly indebted for it to the want of information on the part of the Indians of his march. If they had been apprised of his intention to go against them, they would have had a larger force collected, and in all probability such a one as would have cut him off, notwithstanding their gallantry and firmness. I rejoice however at the issue.

Our Legislature have been in session near a week, and I believe they will adopt some decisive course in regard to the Seminole Indians, and in all probability the whole Province. The intention of going against these Indians from any quarter ought to be kept if possible a profound secret, until the expedition is prepared to be put into immediate operation, for the mo ment they know it, they will carry off all their women and children, destroy all the provisions they cannot secret, and take shelter in the Spanish Garrisons or prowl about the woods like wolves, and occasionally shoot down some of their enemies, when they will themselves be invisible.

I embrace the present occasion to inform you, that in consequence of my ill health, the active duties in which at this season of the year I am engaged as chief magistrate of the State, and with all the distance at which I am placed from the scene of action in regard to the agency which I held under the General Government for the affairs of East Florida, I have relinquish ed that agency, and consequently the command attached thereto. Col. Monroe has intimated to me the intention of the President to confide that agency in future to Major General Pinckney, of whose appointment however I have not yet heard, altho I have no doubt it is, or will be made. If you have not yet heard from him on the subject, it will probably be best for you to act under the orders you have received heretofore from me, until you do hear from him.

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It has been a subject of considerable regret to me, that whilst I was at St. Mary's acting for the United States, I was not permitted to act upon those circumstances which in my judgment authorized the immedi ate commencement of offensive operations against the Spaniards, as well as upon principles of sound policy, as to satisfy the insulted honor of the nation. The Senate undertook to decide against the measure which they either did not understand, or from some base motive were determined to defeat. I am well assured that your opinion corresponded with my own upon this point, and I cannot in justice to my feelings, close this letter without assuring you of the sensibility with which I reflect upon your numerous difficulties, dangers and privations, and of my admiration of the for titude, courage, and perseverence with which you supported yourself under them all. It will however be a subject of still greater mortification to me, if after all this, you are not permitted to reduce the Province to obedience to the U. States. Whatever may be the event, or your future destiny, be assured of The sincere regard & esteem of your fellow citizen, [signed] D. B. Mitchell

Col. Smith to Gen. Pinckney (copy). Point Petre

14th Novr. 1812 Sir :

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favour of the 3d Inst. I transmit herewith a return of the Detachment under my command. Four Companies of the Regt. of Militia have been ordered to my Camp on the St. John's. The remaining six are training here & would have followed in a week (but for the receipt of your favour) with the view of commencing active

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offensive operations against St. Augustine. The Infantry are destitute of Clothing of every description & the Riflemen are deficient of Winter Clothing, say Coats, Vests, and Pantaloons. There is a sufficient quantity of Common Tents for my Detachment & one additional Company, but there is a want of Wall Tents.

We are almost entirely without Camp Kettles, Tin Pans, etc. I have one 18 & 24 Pounder mounted on traveling carriages. The 24 is without fixtures or implements & only 62 round shot. The 18 has worn springs & rammer & 140 round shot. The two field pieces attached to my command are without harness & a great deficiency of Ammunition, there being only about 110 round shot & 48 rounds of Canister. I would have applied to the Asst. D.Q.G. in Savannah for such stores as might have been necessary, but as the arrangements will now rest with you I will by the next mail transmit a return of Ordnance, Military Stores, etc., on hand from which you can better judge of what may be wanting, as I am not apprised of what employment we are to have. The Public Service suffers much for the want of a Quarter Master & you will perceive that I have not an Artillerist to manage the Ordnance or to attend to the duties of that Department. Indeed there is but one Subaltern to the two Companies. of Riflemen with me. I have represented the deficiency to the Department of War repeatedly without its being remedied. I have at present four waggons employed on Public Account to transport the Stores and baggage of the Detachment. I have thought it most prudent not to discharge them until I receive your orders, as others cannot be procured in this quarter. The Militia are without Shoes and their Clothing thin and only calculated for the Summer. I am apprehensive that exposure will make the sick list considerable. The only means by which their condition can be ameliorated is to have them regularly paid every two months. My

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Detachment has pay due them from the last of February. They are so worn out with fatigue and de bilitated with disease that one fourth of those reported for duty are unable to undergo the hardships of a Campaign. Will it not be prudent to send the sick and wounded to this place? The Clothing being sent to the Officers commanding Companies I am unable to make a correct return of what is on hand or what is wanting to complete until I return to Camp, which will be in a few days. In consequence of my having so few men for duty I was compelled to order the little Detachments from Picolata & Davis' Creek to my present encampment, which is immediately on the south 43 bank of the St. John's, thirty miles from Augustine & within one mile of the main road leading to it from the Cowford.

I enclose herewith an extract from the last letter received from Govr. Mitchell. He had authorized me previous to the attack on our convoy to do the Spaniards all the injury in my power, even to the taking of St. Augustine if I was fired on again. I considered the Authority to act ample, but the time when I could do it with any probability of success had passed, the Fortress and lines being much improved & my command so reduced by sickness that I could scarcely furnish the necessary guards. Commodore Campbell has ordered four Gunboats into the St. Johns ; two are near the mouth to protect our Provision boats, the others abreast of my encampment to act as circumstances may require.

I have the honor to be sir with high respect Your obt. servt.

43. More properly the east bank, as the St. John's River at this point flows in a northerly direction.

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Col. Smith to Gen. Flournoy (copy).

Camp New Hope, St. Johns 3d Jany., 1813 Sir :

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favour of the 26th Ulto. In consequence of the unhealthiness of the Detachment, I considered it pru dent to erect temporary huts to protect them from the weather, which would have been completed in six days if I could have procured a few waggons. Four deaths have occurred since you left here, some of them very sudden. Neeley's Volunteers are so badly clad that they cannot perform duty, and unless they can be furnished with Clothing I conceive had as well be discharged as they are at present only an unnecessary expence. They are awkward though brave & would never dishonor their Country if they were furnished with the common comforts of life.

A party of the Patriots went to Diego Plains a few days since & from their carelessness lost one of their party, supposed to have been killed or taken by a party of Negroes from St. Augustine, as considerable sign was discovered. The man lost had fallen in the rear a short distance in crossing a swamp. Every search was made for him without success.

By information received from Augustine, Bowleggs was there & the report in Town was that as soon as the nights were favourable they were to renew hostilities & that neither age nor sex was to be spared. A number of slaves have lately deserted their Masters & gone to Augustine from the St. Johns.

The application having been renewed for the arrest of Dr. Hall, I conceive it a duty to Order it. You will perceive the necessity of sending a Surgeon to supply his place as early as possible. I wish one of the Militia ordered to join me if his services can be dispensed

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with. You will receive herewith a monthly return of the Troops under my command.

I have the honor to be sir, with high respect Your obt. servt, Col. Smith to Gen. Flournoy (copy).

Camp New Hope, St. John's. 31st Jany. 1813. Sir :

I enclose herewith an Inventory of the Contractor's Stores at this Post. We are at present using Potatoes instead of bread & all in the neighborhood will not last the Detachment more than four or five days. The relyance for beef is on three or four worthless fellows who think it probable (if there should be no Indian sign discovered) that they can find sufficient quantity to last us ten days.

Holder was shot in compliance with the sentence passed on him yesterday evening. Day's grave was prepared & he brought out & ordered to kneel at the foot of it, when his pardon was read. No circumstances attended the execution worth communicating. The example, if I can judge from appearances, will have a good effect.

I find Capt. Farrar's Company have not been mustered since they were enlisted & consequently not paid. There are no papers with the Company that will enable the Officer at present commanding it to make out a Muster Roll. The men will consequently be deprived of their pay until those papers are forwarded. There is a man of the Regt. of Riflemen (Wm. Bonds) at Ft. Hawkins who I wish transferred to Capt. Woodruff in the place of John Riley, a lad whose father is in the Regt. of Riflemen. I wish to be informed whether the Inspection returns are to be forwarded to the Adjt. Genl. or to Maj. Boote. I send duplicate

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returns of the Detachment at this Post as I am not clear that it would be regular in me to make a return to any person but yourself. The Ordnance return shall be forwarded in a few days.

I find on a settlement of the debts contracted on Public account that I am deficient of about 500 dollars which I wish sent on by the earliest opportunity after the arrival of Mr. Russell. There is not more than four or five hundred bushels of corn that can be purchased on the St. John's & it is even doubtful whether that quantity can be procured.

I am sir with high respect Your obt. servt.

Col. Smith to Zephaniah Kingsley (copy).

Camp New Hope, St. Johns, 2d Feby. 1813. Dear Sir:

I leave this place tomorrow night for your house with two hundred & twenty men. From three to three hundred & fifty more will meet me at Newnan's battle ground on Saturday about 12 o'clock. I wish you to have your flat sent over tomorrow evening to assist me in getting the horses, baggage, etc., over. Tell Mr. Summerlin I calculate on him as a guide. I expect him to have everything prepared without delay. Our provision boat has not arrived, but is hourly expected. I shall be cursed by [being] hard prest for Provision, but nothing shall stop me. If you can possibly furnish any pack horses have them ready. One dollar pr day shall be paid for them. I shall want the necessary fixtures etc. as we have no leather here to make them. Prepare as many as you can. The Indians will be beaten & you are secure. Let me hear from you by the bearer.

I am respectfully sir Your Obt. Servt.

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Col. Smith to Gen. Flournoy (copy).

Camp New Hope, St. Johns 24th Feby. 1813 Sir :

Your Orders directing an expedition against the Lochaway Tribes were received on the 2d Inst. I immediately set about preparing the necessary outfit, with a desire to form a junction with Colo. Williams 44 commanding the Tennessee Volunteers at the time & place appointed. Having not more than ten or twelve hours' notice for preparation, added to the difficulty of procuring pack horses, I was not, with all our dispatch, enabled to meet him till a day later than was expected.

Our Detachments united thirteen miles from Pain's Town. No one of our Guides was acquainted with the route from this point to Bolegg's Town, which would have given an opportunity to attack the Towns separately & at the same hour next morning. 45 Consequent ly we were compelled to move together against Paine's Town, which was entered at daylight, but the Indians from every appearance, had fled some weeks before. I continued in possession of the Town. Colo. Williams with his Detachment took the path to Bolegg's. They had not advanced far before two Indians were seen & pursued by his advanced Guard ; one was killed and the other, tho wounded, escaped in a hammock. Their march was continued two or three miles further, when his advanced Guard again discovered Indians in Camp, charged on it, killed one & took seven Prisoners.

Understanding from the Prisoners a Negro Town

44. Col. John Williams, commanding 240 mounted, uniformed and fully equipped East Tennessee volunteers, who were recruited in a few weeks in consequence of a spirited proposition from Col. Williams and Maj. Gen. John Cocke. They offered their services to the President, but marched before the acceptance, requesting that it be sent after them. (Niles Weekly Reg ister, Jan. 9, 1813, p. 300.)

45. Payne's town is shown on section charts as being 11/4 miles north of the present town of Micanopy, Alachua, County.

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lately settled was within two miles, Colo. Williams determined to visit it & return that night to my Camp at Pain's Town. But apprised either by the wounded Indian, or alarmed by the guns fired upon the Camp, they hurried away precipitately, which prevented many from being taken Prisoners. We learned from the Prisoners that the Indians were informed three moons ago, by a letter from the Creek Nation, that an American force intended to invade their country, that many of them returned to the Creeks for safety.

Our encampment was continued near Pain's Town until the 10th. In the meantime both Detachments were engaged collecting provisions & food for horses from the adjoining hammocks. On that day Colo. Williams set out for Bolegg's, about five miles from Camp. 46 A spirited skirmish ensued between the Volunteers & a force consisting of both Indians and Ne groes. A messenger was dispatched to notify me of the event. I went out with a part of my force, intending to act with the Volunteers, to penetrate the Swamp, & fall in the rear of the enemy, but met them returning to Camp, having made the experiment I designed and finding the hammock in that direction impenetrable. In this affair about fifteen Indians & Negroes were killed with many wounded. On the part of the Volunteers, Lieut. John M. Smith was lost & Maj. Stevens wounded. For further particulars I refer you to Colo. Williams' communication.

The next day was employed in destroying the Negro Town shown us by the Prisoners. This effected we

46. According to 1st Howard, p. 25, brought to my attention by Fred Cubberly of Gainesville, Governor Coppinger granted Domingo Acosta "1000 acres of land at Bowlegs' old plantation and situate northwesterly and contiguous to the same Bowlegs' prairie, westward of Payne's town." A survey of this Acosta grant in the office of Arthur T. Williams, Jacksonville, records the location of Bowlegs' old plantation as one-half mile south of old Wacahoota in Levy County, eight miles W-SW of the present town of Micanopy, being in S1/2 of Sec 9, T 12 S, R 19 E.

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marched on the 12th to Bolegg's, expecting the Indians would upon the same ground dispute our passage between two hammocks to the Town. They however, made no formidable stand, fired many distant shots without effect & retreated to the interior of the Swamp.

In this last skirmish four of the enemy were killed & some wounded.

We encamped several days at Bolegg's Town & penetrated the hammock on the side opposite that where our men were opposed. These hammocks or swamps are extensive tracts of fertile land covered with thick shrubbery affording a safe retreat to the Indians, & therefore require much caution to penetrate them safely. This circumstance produced more delay than would otherwise have occurred. We burnt three hundred & eighty six houses ; consumed & destroyed from fifteen hundred to two thousand bushels of corn ; three hundred horses & about four hundred cattle were collected, many of which were lost in attempting to drive them in. Two thousand deer skins were found in Bolegg's magazine ; part were used by the troops, the others destroyed. Five of the Prisoners escaped through the negligence of the guard ; the other five are at this Camp & will be sent by the first opportunity to Camp Pinckney.

The weather was extremely bad during the whole of this incursion. The men were much fatigued by their constant employment in scouring hammocks ; the horses were too languid & feeble for further service. Our guides were ignorant of the route to the big hammock town, which, with the reduction of the horses, would have prevented an attack upon the settlement. I agreed with Capt. Ashley & Maj. Dill, who were of important service to us & inasmuch as the Volunteers declined it believing their horses too weak, that if they would collect & drive in the cattle, they should have them on condition it were approved by you. Every

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Officer & Soldier of both Detachments evinced promptitude & alacrity in his duties & I feel much pleasure in stating that this campaign may teach them more forbearance hereafter in aggressions upon our citizens.

I have the honor to be sir With high respect, Your obt. servt.

Col. Smith to Gen. Flournoy (copy).

Camp New Hope, St. Johns, 24th Feby. 1813. Sir :

You will receive herewith my communication relative to the Lotchaway expedition. The facts are con sonant in most particulars to those which will be reported by Colo. Williams. Your Orders were executed to the full extent, that, under existing circumstances, was practicable. I must request it will conclude my tour of service in the Southern Country ; & earnestly solicit permission to visit without delay my friends in Tennessee. I have been near twelve months in this Province, a period in which if no Peril were encountered, excessive perplexity & vexation were sustained.

The purposes of (Government, as for the eight months past, are yet indefinite in relation to East Florida. To the North its views are notorious. Active operations are there certainly & speedily to be prosecuted. To go to Tennessee, recruit a Regiment & co-operate with my Countrymen is a privilege I confidently ask, & hope you will without hesitation grant. I have obtained Capt. Woodruff's consent that Robert Eddington of his Company be transferred to the Rifle Regt. in lieu of two recruits furnished him. John D. King of the Rifle Regt. is infirm & unfit for labourous service. He will be useful in the Hospital Department, & in the event of my going to Tennessee, should be attached to some Company at this Place.

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Capt. Cummings is anxious to take charge of a little Indian boy now a prisoner at this Encampment; his father was killed in the Lochaway skirmishes. Capt. Cummings pledges himself that the boy shall be sent at any expence to whatever point subsequent orders or regulations may require.

I want One thousand dollars to meet the contingent expenses of the Detachment in this Province as soon as possible. A part of the sum has been advanced out of my private funds, & the Creditors are very pressing for the payment of their remaining claims.

I have the honor to be sir, with high respect Your obt. servt.

Col. Smith to Maj. Lawrence Manning (copy).

Sir : Point Petre, 26th Mar. 1813.

The last mail brought me a furlough. You will assume the command that has been confided to me, on the 4th of April. I transmit herewith the last communication from Genl. Flournoy & an extract of a letter from Genl. Pinckney for your government. I requested Genl. Flournoy to let Capt. Cummings have the little Indian Boy, who is a prisoner at this place.

Not having received an answer from him, I wish you to authorize Captain Cummings to carry him to Augusta taking his written assurance that he shall be sent back without public expence when it is required.. I wish the Indians' goods sent to the poor wretches at this place by the return of the Boat. I have ordered Mr. Lequeux to your post after he has taken an account of the public property of every description over which he as Q. M. will have any control & made the necessary arrangements for its safe keeping. It will be well if you think his services can be spared to permit him to

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go to Charleston & settle his accounts. The return of Ordnance, Military Stores, etc., required to be made to me, will now be forwarded to Colo. Decius Wadsworth, Commissary Genl. of Ordnance, Washington.

As soon as the Militia are discharged it will be well to visit the different Posts of command & give such directions as you conceive their safety & the Public service require. I conceive the directions of the Maj. Genl. cannot be strictly complied [with] without keeping out parties of observation to go as far as you conceive your safety makes necessary. It is reported here that a fleet of Gun boats is daily expected at the mouth of the St. Johns. I do not credit the report, but if it should be well founded there is no doubt but they meditate an attack on New Hope. The principal part of the Militia are entitled to their discharge on the first of April. I conceive the Public service cannot be benefited by detaining Captns. Cummings & Saunders longer than the rest. By permitting them to leave New Hope on the last of the present month, they will be able to reach Camp Pinckney in time to be paid & march with the balance of the Regt. Capt. Massias will forward to you some Genl. Orders I have sent for promulgation at his post.

I have the honor to be With high respect, Your obt. servt.

Col. Smith to Maj. Manning (copy). Point Petre

27th March, 1813 Dear Major :

I have the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your favour of the 22d Inst. Your plan for securing your Detachment is a good one & I hope you may have the work completed before the Dons pay you a visit.

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You tell me not to laugh at your work. I am no Engineer, but I assure you as far as I am capable of judg ing a better one could not be adopted. 47

I received a letter today from Gen. Floyd. One half of his Brigade are ordered to be in readiness for service at a moment's notice. The impression among the knowing ones appears to be that the British will lay Savannah under contribution or in ashes. Some information has been received to warrant this opinion. The Chesapeak is Blockaded by a strong naval force, say five or six line of Battle Ships and ten frigates, and several others off our coast. I am more disposed to believe that So. Carolina or Georgia will be their principal object, as they know as well as ourselves where we are weakest. My God what a scene there will be if they should get a footing in this quarter & put Arms in the hands of our slaves. I hope & trust the Army will be soon organized, for in its present state we can expect nothing but disaster. I expect much from Genl. Davy's experience. Our men will do their duty if properly directed. If I should at any time have it in my power to render you a service I beg you to command me. I expect to join the Northern Army soon, when I will with pleasure communicate to you every information that will interest you.

Tender my respects to the Officers of your command & accept yourself assurances of my high Respect & Esteem. Adieu,

47. Though age-old oaks grow from the embankment, the earthwork erected at New Hone by Major Manning in March, 1813, to protect the camp from an attack by the Spaniards; still remains as a reminder of a little detachment of ragged, half-starved American soldiers, who 118 years ago "carried on" in a foreign land amidst the most distressing conditions incident to the profession of arms. Here, too, is a site well worthy of a historical marker. (See the accompanying chart of Camp New Hope and environs, which shows the detail of the work erected by Major Manning.)

(This account of American troops in Spanish East Florida will be concluded in the next issue of the QUARTERLY.) Click here for Part Five.

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